Data security means protecting data in a database, personal computer or network from unauthorized users. In general, data can range from personal files to any corporate analytics information. Though some information is intended for general use, there might be some data that needs to be confidential. This is where data security steps in. The idea behind providing data security is to shield or restrict the corporate and personal data from the external unauthorized sources.

The most pragmatic use of data security is for financial transactions, because internet financial details are most vulnerable to security breaches.

Data Security Techniques

The most commonly used data security techniques include:

  • Data Masking
  • Data Erasure
  • Data Encryption Techniques
  • Backup

Data Masking

As the name suggests, data masking is the process of camouflaging the essential data so that it is not leaked to unauthorized users.

For example, software testers, who need real-time data to test the product or software, do not get access to sensitive customer data as this can lead to a security breach of customer’s information. Hence, they are only given mock data to perform their testing.

Data Erasure

Data Storage helps to store the data efficiently for future reporting and analysis.

Data Encryption Techniques

Public key encryption, symmetric key encryption, hashing, and digital signatures are the predominantly used data encryption techniques currently. Encryption converts data or information into a unique code so that only authorized personnel can access it. Authorized persons are given a “key” to decrypt the data, and only those with the key can access the information.


Data can be backed up in case of emergencies where the data would be lost. This is done by storing the data in a separate database from the main database. This data is often kept in a physical storage device, such as a hard drive. This provides security in case of the main database being hacked or malfunctioning. In this case, the secondary database will still have the data available to load back up.